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Forklift Safety Module

​​In this module you will learn the requirements for safely operating a forklift on E Light Electric Services, Inc. projects, the hazards of operating a forklift, and how to mitigate those hazards. This module is intended for refresher training for trained operators and is not intended for replacing classroom training from an authorized instructor for new operators. 

•Rough terrain forklift
–versatile material handler
–capable of moving thousands of pounds over rugged surfaces
Session Objectives
•Identify rough terrain forklift hazards
•Understand stability principles
•Follow basic safety rules
•Inspect forklifts and worksites for safety
•Load, unload, and travel safely
•Prevent tip-overs
•Confined areas
–Dips, holes, trenches, excavations
•Soft ground, 

Did you know most accidents are caused by operator error?

•The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by the standard.
•Certification shall include:
–Name of operator
–Date of training
–Date of evaluation
–Identity of person(s) performing the training or evaluation
–Class of Fork lift  
•The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 11 classes.
–These classifications are based on the type of engine or motor and the atmosphere they to operate in.
Powered Industrial Trucks 1910.178
(l)   Operator training.
(l)(1)  Safe operation.
–The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in this paragraph.
–Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training required by this paragraph (l), except as permitted by paragraph (l)(5).  
•Training program implementation.
–Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:
–Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and.
–Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.  
–Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace.
–All operator training and evaluation shall be conducted by persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence.  
–Certification. The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by this paragraph (l). The certification shall include the name of the operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation, and the identity of the person(s) performing the training or evaluation.
–An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's performance shall be conducted at least once every three years.
OSHA Requirements
•Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions
•Differences between the truck and the automobile;
•Controls and instrumentation
•Engine or motor operation
•Steering and maneuvering  
•Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations
•Vehicle capacity
•Vehicle stability;
•Vehicle inspection and maintenance
•Operating limitations
Work Related Topics
•Hazardous (classified) locations
•Ramps and other sloped surfaces
• Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust
•Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions
Rough Terrain Forklifts

•Transportable, vertical mast, reach type

•The vertical Mast  type

•Variable reach (telescoping boom) 
•Avoid Pinch points
•Avoid entanglements
•Avoid rotating Parts
Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance 
•Refer to the operators manual
–Each manufacture is different
–Check the interval and method for air filters
–Some manufactures require this be done only by an authorized technician  
Pre-operating Checks
•All instruments and gauges
•Horns and backup  alarm
•All controls for proper operation
•Brakes for proper operation
•Fluid levels
•Hydraulic leaks  
•Safety belt
•Fork tilt mechanism
•Battery cables and connections
•General wiring
• Boom
–Slide pads (extendable)
• Mast
–lift assemble / chains
•Check Forks
•Check tires
–Tire inflation effects stability
•Engine pre- operation checks
Engine or Motor Operations
• Rough Terrain with diesel engine  
–The majority of rentals in the field
–Cold start problems
–Lack cold cranking batteries
–Lack glow plug system
–If equipped plug in engine heater
–Check operators manual for stating procedure    
•Warehouse type with propane engine
•Fueling / tank change out
•Follow instruction in operators manual
•Requires adequate ventilation
–Propane still produces carbon monoxide
Differences Between the Truck and the Automobile
•A car steers only from the front axle
•Forklifts generally steer from the back axle
•Rough Terrain extended boom fork lifts can steer (depending on model)
–Rear steer
–Front Steer
–Four wheel steer
–Crab Steer
•Check the operators manual to understand how to set or change and how to correct
Differences Between Front and Rear Steering
•Rear steering provides a much shorter turning radius
•Rear steering also has the tail swing effect that can strike objects or personnel

•Rough Terrain Fork lift with rear steering only

•Rough Terrain Fork lift with rear steering only

Front Wheel Steering

Drives like a car

4 Wheel Steer Turn

•Rough Terrain Fork lift with all wheel steering
Tail swing
Fork Swing

Crab Steer
•All four wheels angle the same way
•Allows for a sideways movement
The Problem
•In shifting form front steer to rear to crab to four wheel
•If not reset can have the wheel miss aliened for any of the steering modes
•Return front or rear to inline with machine
•Then set the other wheels to in line with the machine.
•Check operators manual
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